What is Diabetes? Symptoms, Causes And Treatment Methods

Diabetes mellitus is a type of disease that lasts throughout the life of the human being due to the inability of the secretory gland called pancreas in the body to produce insufficient levels of insulin hormone or to use the insulin hormone it tries to produce ineffectively. People who suffer from diabetes cannot use the sugar (glucose) that must pass from the food they consume to the blood, and hyperglycemia occurs with the rise of blood sugar. Hyperglycemia;  blood sugar is above the normal level.

Diabetes occurs at very sudden and unexpected times. When the blood sugar accumulated in the body reaches the required amount, it is excreted in the urine. Due to the increased amount of sugar accumulated in the urine, frequent urine needs, constant thirst with constant dry mouth, followed by a desire to consume excessive amounts of water. Since the insulin hormone in the body is ineffective, the cells cannot use sugar. As a result, the cells provide the energy they need from the body’s fats and proteins. This causes the body’s balance to deteriorate, causing the patient to weaken rapidly.


The most common type of diabetes is diabetes.  These;

  • Type 1 diabetes
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Pre-diabetes (hidden sugar)
  • Gestational diabetes (pregnancy diabetes)


Insulin; it allows glucose in the blood to enter the cells and circulate regularly in the body. The bodies of patients with type 1 diabetes, on the other hand, concentrate on the cells in the pancreas making insulin and destroy insulin production. It can decompose carbohydrate to glucose but after glucose enters the bloodstream, cells cannot enter because there is no insulin production. As a result, the sugar content in the blood increases. As the cells supply the energy they need from fats and proteins, patients with type 1 diabetes rapidly weaken. Patients with type 1 diabetes have to take insulin daily to maintain their body balance.


It is the most common type of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes insulin resistant or when the pancreas stops producing enough insulin. It is a chronic condition that affects the way the body metabolizes sugar (glucose), an important fuel source. The body with type 2 diabetes is resistant to the effects of insulin, a hormone that regulates the movement of sugar into cells, and does not produce enough insulin to maintain the required level of glucose. Type 2 diabetes, which is more common in adults, affects children with increasing rates of obesity in childhood.


It means that your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but there isn’t enough sugar to be type 1 and 2 diabetes. Pre-diabetic patients are at risk of developing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Pre-diabetes usually has no signs or symptoms. The exact cause of pre-diabetes is unknown. However, the patient’s family history and genetics play an important role.A still life and weight without sports are important elements.


Gestational diabetes is diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. Like other types of diabetes, it affects how cells use glucose (glucose) in gestational diabetes. During pregnancy, the placenta increases the levels of hormones. As a result, insulin resistance decreases and blood sugar levels rise abnormally. Gestational diabetes can cause high blood sugar, which can affect pregnancy and the health of the baby. Patients with gestational diabetes can control this disease with a healthy and balanced diet, daily exercises and medication prescribed by the physician. Once the blood sugar is under control, the baby’s health will be preserved.


Increased thirst (polydipsia)

  • Frequent urination (polyuria)
  • Continuous hunger (polyphagia)
  • Weakness
  • Fast weight loss
  • Blurry and hazy vision
  • Increased infections and wound healing too late
  • Psychological changes and excessive nervous state
  • Burning of hands and feet, tingling
  • Presence of ketones in urine (ketones are a product of muscle and fat breakdown that occurs when there is not enough insulin)


Fasting Blood Glucose measurement or Oral Glucose Tolerance test is performed to determine if a person has diabetes. In the Fasting Blood Glucose measurement, the rate of 100-125 mg / dl indicates pre-diabetes (latent sugar) and the rate of 126 mg / dl indicates diabetes. In the Oral Glucose Tolerance test, the rate of 140-199 mg / dl indicates pre-diabetes (latent sugar) and the rate of 199 mg / dl indicates diabetes.


 Diabetes can cause many health problems with it. These include nephrological diseases, lung diseases, visual defects, heart diseases, stroke, deep wounds that do not close, hearing and sexual problems.


Diabetes is a very risky and serious disease. Blood sugar, nutrition and physical activities should be kept under control to prevent diabetes. The diabetic patient should be aware of the disease and take all the necessary responsibility. Nutritional advice of the physician is vital and needs to be paid attention. In particular, excessive carbohydrate consumption should be avoided. Diabetic patients will receive sufficient energy to meet the needs of their body with a special nutrition program. Oil and oil derivatives should be avoided. At least 3 meals a day should be eaten.  Meals and snacks should be taken at the same time each day and this should be taken into consideration. Portions should be under control and whole grain breads should be preferred. Dried legumes may be preferred. Fruits can be consumed, but not much.

Daily exercise is essential for the body to control blood sugar by using glucose effectively and evenly.  Physical activity also increases the sensitivity to insulin, allowing the body to need less insulin to transport sugar to the cells. Exercises such as walking, swimming or cycling can be selected. Walk at least 30 minutes daily.

Blood sugar level should be monitored and actions taken accordingly. Blood glucose levels should be measured 3-4 times daily or more frequently if insulin is taken and recorded.

Patients using insulin should use timely meals without skipping. Stomach enzymes are not taken orally because they cause insulin to lose its effect.  With a device called insulin needle, insulin is injected directly into the body.

Diabetes medicines to be given by physicians are also important in treatment. Some diabetes medications stimulate the pancreas to produce and release more insulin. It inhibits the production and release of glucose from the liver, which means that it requires less insulin to transport sugar to the cells. It blocks the effect of stomach or intestinal enzymes that break down carbohydrates and make tissues more sensitive to insulin.


  • Take notes to manage your diabetes: Learn all about diabetes. Get in touch with your doctor and ask for help if you need it.
  • Eat healthy food and lose healthy weight: Healthy eating and healthy weight loss are the most important measures to be taken for diabetes.
  • Make physical activity a part of your daily routine: Regular exercise can help prevent pre-diabetes and type 2 diabetes and provide healthier blood sugar control.
  • Introduce yourself: wear a bracelet or jewelry that may indicate you have diabetes. In emergencies, this jewelry can save lives.
  • Make your eye examinations complete: Patients with diabetes may have eye problems such as retinal damage, eye optic problems, and cataracts.
  • Take care of your feet: Foot care is a must. Feet should be washed in warm water every day.
  • Have your dental care: inflammation, bleeding and sores on the gums may occur. Make sure you get your treatments.

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