Hemorrhoids: Symptoms and Treatment Methods

The anus is a kind of canal that is approximately 3.7 cm long, which connects the rectum through the external connection. Circular muscles control bending muscles (muscle sphincter) attached to the anus, solid residues, passage through the anus, and then pushing out. The digestive system has a much simpler structure unlike other bodily systems. Commonly hemorrhoids, which is one of the anorectal problems, may occur after digestive disorders (constipation etc.). 

In short, hemorrhoids are swollen vessels in the anus or lower rectum. It is divided into two as internal and external. Internal hemorrhoids develop inside the anus and rectum. External hemorrhoids develop outside the anus. External hemorrhoids are especially common in humans.  Hemorrhoids lead to severe reductions in quality of life and painful distress.

What are the Stages of Hemorrhoids?

4 phases;

  • Stage 1: There are growths in tissues that cause hemorrhoids.  Bleeding occurs during stool. It shows itself by showing signs of bleeding.
  • Stage 2: The enlarged hemorrhoidal tissue begins to swell after the toilet and hangs down the anus.
  • Stage 3: Hemorrhoidal tissue that spontaneously enters in stage 2 can only enter into the anus by pushing the patient by hand.
  • Stage 4: Hemorrhoidal tissue is now out. They do not spontaneously enter the anus, nor do they enter the anus by manual push. In the last stage of the disease, hemorrhoidal tissue is prone to inflammation. Wounds may occur.

What are Hemorrhoids Symptoms?

Symptoms of hemorrhoids include;

  • Excessive strain and burning when going to the toilet
  • Itching around and around the anus
  • Irritation around the anus
  • Red, bright blood in the stool
  • Very serious pain in the toilet
  • Pain in the anus while standing
  • Leakage of feces
  • Stool problems

What are the Risk Factors For Hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids are hereditary. People with obesity, those who work hard or are constantly lifting weights are at risk. Continuous standing or sitting constantly increases the risk of hemorrhoids. Chronic constipation and diarrhea also cause the development of hemorrhoids. It is commonly associated with increased pressure and hormonal changes in pregnant women.

How Often Do Hemorrhoids Occur?

Hemorrhoids are one of the most common problems in recent years. There are 1 out of 4 people on average.  The frequency between men and women is the same. Before 15-16 years of age, tissues and canals are intact and hemorrhoids do not occur. It is frequently seen between the ages of 15-65. 65 years and older no longer have hemorrhoid problems.

How is Hemorrhoids Diagnosed?

Visual examination of the anus may be sufficient in most cases to diagnose the disease. Anoscopy can also be used for hemorrhoid problem. The examination of the anal canal with an instrument called anoscope is called anoscopy.

What are the Diseases That are Thought To Be Hemorrhoids?

  • Rectum Tumor: It is a type of tumor that occurs in the last part of the large intestine. Symptoms are more painful in rectum tumors.
  • Anal Fissure: The symptoms of anal fissure are almost identical to those of hemorrhoids. Pain due to abrasion of the breech and blood can be seen when making feces.
  • Perianal Fissure: The symptom of perianal fissure begins with burning in the rectum. Blood may not be seen. Yellowish inflammation is usually seen in the stool.
  • Rectal Prolapse: Rectal prolapse is the extension of the rectum from the anus. Although the symptoms are similar to hemorrhoids, rectal prolapse may cause stool incontinence. It is a painful problem.
  • Ulcerative Colitis: Chronic intestinal disease. Causes inflammation. Symptoms often include pain and burning.

What are the Treatment Methods Of Hemorrhoids?

In the treatment of hemorrhoids the priority is to solve the digestive problem. Constant constipation or diarrhea (diarrhea) causes hemorrhoids to form and grow. It is not right for the patient to take any action unless a definitive diagnosis is made by the physician.  Creams and medications can be used to reduce symptoms in the 1st and 2nd stages of the hemorrhoid stages.

During extreme pain, a hot water sitting bath for about 20-25 minutes can also be a temporary solution.  One of the treatment methods of hemorrhoids is sclerotherapy. Without anesthesia, some chemicals are injected into the hemorrhoidal tissue by injection. With this method, sagging and pain outside the anus is tried to be relieved.

The method of strangling and decaying hemorrhoidal tissue is one of the treatment methods of hemorrhoids.  Tissue protruding from the anus with medical rubber is suffocated with rubber. After a while this tissue outside the anus rots and treatment is realized.

Hemorrhoid surgery also plays an important role in the treatment of the disease. Especially in the 3rd and 4th stage, surgery is required. It is a surgical procedure performed with general anesthesia.

Laser Hemorrhoids (Hemorrhoids) Treatment

Laser is used in most of the diseases and is used in hemorrhoid problems. It is frequently preferred by many people in the treatment of hemorrhoids, as it is both effortless and comfortable. Laser hemorrhoids can be treated at any stage of hemorrhoids. It helps to enlarge the swelling of the hemorrhoid nozzle formed in the 1st and 2nd stages. In 3rd and 4th stage hemorrhoids, it is used to cut the hemorrhoid nozzle.  The laser used for the treatment of hemorrhoids carries a temperature of approximately 90 degrees. When the laser is touched on the hemorrhoidal tissue, denaturation occurs in the tissue. On average, it takes 10-20 minutes. The patient is given local anesthesia (partial and limited numbness) or sedation (temporary sleep).

Damage to the hemorrhoidal tissue is approximately 3-5 mm deep and 6-9 mm wide. Damaged tissue shrinks, reducing the volume of collected vessels.  After a short time, the damaged tissue is replaced with a healthier and new tissue and the problem is eliminated. On average 3-4 weeks dead tissue disappears completely. Patients experience little pain during treatment. This pain is temporary. After a very short time, the patient easily returns to his / her daily life.  Since there is no surgical procedure in the muscles in the anus, there is no problem of gas and stool incontinence. There is no need for any dressing after treatment and it is very unlikely that the disease will recur.

What are the Prevention Methods for Hemorrhoids?

To get rid of hemorrhoids disease, plenty of vitamin C should be taken. Rich fiber and fiber foods should be preferred. Solid foods should be reduced by increasing fruit and vegetable consumption. Liquid food intake should be increased. Drink 2.5-3 liters of water per day.  30-minute brisk walking or exercises must be done during the day. The hours of going to the toilet should be paid attention and should not be seated in the toilet for too long. Soft napkins should be used in the toilet.

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