What is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect not only joints but also many areas. In some patients, this can also damage a wide range of body systems, including skin problems, eyes, lungs, heart and vascular access. Rheumatoid arthritis, an autoimmune disease, occurs when the immune system attacks the tissues of the patient’s own body. Unlike the deformation and problem of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis affects the joints of the joints and consequently causes a painful swelling that can result in bone disease and joint wear.

Inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis) with rheumatoid arthritis can also damage other parts of the body.  While the newly discovered pharmacological varieties enrich the treatment methods, severe rheumatoid arthritis can cause physiological disruption.

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 What are the Symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

 Signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis include:

  • Swollen joints
  • Joint stiffness, which usually worsens in the morning and worsens after a period of inactivity.
  • Fatigue, fever and weight loss
  • Sensitivity

Rheumatoid arthritis tends to affect small joints first. These are especially the joints of the fingers and toes. As the disease progresses, symptoms usually spread to the wrists, ankles, knees and kneecaps, arm elbows, hip bones, and around the shoulder. In most cases, symptoms occur in the same joints on both sides of the body. Approximately 35-40% of rheumatoid arthritis patients do not experience only joint problems. It can affect many structures. These:

  • Leather mechanism
  • Eye and surroundings
  • Lung diseases
  • Cardiovascular
  • Kidneys
  • The functioning of the salivary glands
  • Neural tissues
  • Bone marrow
  • Blood and capillaries

The signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis vary with increasing severity. Swelling and pain disappear over time. Then the symptoms are exacerbated. This change is called exacerbations. Over time, rheumatoid arthritis can cause joint damage and impair physiology.

 What Causes Rheumatoid Arthritis?

  • Rheumatoid arthritis occurs when the immune system attacks the synovium (the lining of the membranes surrounding the joints).
  • The resulting inflammation darkens the synovium, which can destroy cartilage and bone within the joint.
  • The tendons and ligaments, the main source of the joint, weaken and stretch. Over time, symmetry and irregularities begin in the joints.
  • Genes do not cause rheumatoid arthritis, but may make them more susceptible to environmental viruses and bacterial factors that may cause disease.

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 What are the Risk Factors for Rheumatoid Arthritis?

  • Gender: Women are more likely to develop the disease than men.
  • Age: Rheumatoid arthritis can begin in any condition, regardless of age, but most often begins between the ages of 45 and 65 years.
  • Family history: The presence of rheumatoid arthritis in one member of the family and the probability of the disease being more common in other individuals.
  • Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of illness, especially if the patient has a genetic match for the formation and development of the disease. Smoking also invites many diseases.
  • Environmental factors: Although uncertain and poorly understood, environmental factors may increase the risk of disease.
  • Obesity: In overweight or obese patients, the risk of developing the disease is very high.

 What are the Complications of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

  • Risk of osteoporosis: Together with some medications used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it may increase the risk of osteoporosis, which leads to weakness of the bones and more susceptible to damage.
  • Rheumatoid nodules: These types of nodules usually emerge in and around the elbow and the highest pressure area. Such nodules may also develop in the lung, liver or any other region.
  • Dry eye and mouth: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis are more likely to develop a disease that reduces the wetness of the eyes and mouth by working glands incorrectly.
  • Infections: Drugs and derivatives that can be used in this disease may cause confusion in the balance of the body. These include weakening the immune system.  This invites infections.
  • Abnormal body composition: May cause impairment of body mass index.
  • Carpal tunnel Syndrome: If the disease affects the wrists, inflammation can compress the nerves of the hands and fingers, causing the syndrome.
  • Heart problems: The disease can harden and trigger clogged arteries and cause heart disease.
  • Lung disease: Patients may have an increased risk of inflammation and scarring of the lung tissue, which may cause shortness of breath.
  • Lymphoma: Rheumatoid arthritis increases the risk of lymphoma, a type of blood cancer that grows and develops in the lymph system.

 Is It Dangerous To Use Rheumatoid Arthritis Drugs During Pregnancy?

Many types of rheumatoid arthritis medications can harm the unborn baby that develops during pregnancy.  It is necessary to talk to the doctor before becoming pregnant.

Different types of drugs carry different risks. Some medications can cause birth defects and others can cause low birth risks. Some medications used for rheumatoid arthritis may increase the risk of high blood pressure or diabetes for pregnant women.

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What are the Treatment Methods for Rheumatoid Arthritis?

 There is no clear treatment for rheumatoid arthritis yet.  Recent findings, however, suggest that early onset of treatment is associated with greater early symptoms reduction with potent drugs known as disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs.

The types of medications prescribed by the doctor will depend on the severity of the symptoms and how long rheumatoid arthritis spends;

  • NSAIDs: Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs can alleviate pain and reduce inflammation. NSAIDs include ibuprofen naproxen sodium. Side effects may include excessive tinnitus in the ears, dyspepsia, problems with heart artels, liver and kidney damage.
  • Steroids: Corticosteroid drugs reduce symptoms. It starts to prevent joint damage. Side effects include deformation of the bones and diabetes. Doctors may prescribe corticosteroids to relieve sudden onset symptoms and then reduce the use of medication.
  • Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs: These drugs slow the progression of rheumatoid arthritis. Protects joint problems from problems that may be hereditary.  Common DMARDs contain methotrexate-like agents.

 These drugs and their derivatives target inflammation and parts of the immune system that cause joint and tissue damage. Such drugs also increase the risk of infection.

 What are Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapies?

The doctor may refer to physical or occupational therapists who can exercise the patient to help keep the joints flexible. The therapist may also suggest new ways of performing the patient’s daily tasks, which will be easier for the joints. For example, if the fingers are painful, such as getting an object using the forearms.  Auxiliary devices make it easier to relieve pain in painful joints.

What is Rheumatoid Arthritis Surgery?

If drugs do not prevent or slow joint damage, the doctor may consider surgery to repair damaged joints.  Surgery can help restore the ability to use the joint. It can also reduce pain and correct deformities.

Rheumatoid arthritis surgery is as follows:

Synovectomy: Surgery to remove the inflamed synovium (priming of the joint). Can be done on knees, elbows, wrists, fingers and hips.

Tendon repair: Inflammation and joint damage can cause loosening or tearing of the tendons around the joint. The doctor can repair the tendons around the joint surgically.

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Joint fusion: Surgically joining the joint may be recommended to stabilize or re-align the joint and relieve pain.

Joint replacement: During joint replacement surgery, the doctor removes damaged parts of the joint. Places a prosthesis made of metal and plastic.

Surgical bleeding, infection and pain may be at risk.

What Can Be Done At Home For Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Along with medications prescribed by the doctor, the following can help to manage signs and symptoms:

Regular exercise: Non-heavy exercise can help strengthen the muscles around the joints and help combat fatigue.  The doctor should be consulted before starting to exercise.

Heat or cold compressing: Heat can help relieve pain and relax tense, painful muscles. Cold compresses can reduce the feeling of pain. Cold compresses also have numbness and reduce muscle spasms.

Relaxation: Stress and nerves stay away from quality resting the symptoms of the disease relieves.

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